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Sodium Hydroxide – Caustic Soda
Sodium Hydroxide, commonly known as caustic soda, is an inorganic chemical. The cations of sodium (Na+) and the anions of hydroxide (OH) form a white solid ionic combination. When exposed to normal room temperature, sodium hydroxide can break down proteins and produce serious chemical burns because of its extreme causticity as a base and alkali. It easily takes water and carbon dioxide from the air due to its high solubility in water. There is a progression of hydrates formed: NaOH NH The monohydrate NaOH. 2O crystallizes from liquid solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. Available to the public, “sodium hydroxide” is typically the monohydrate form, which may be used in place of the anhydrous component in some published data. Simple hydroxides like sodium hydroxide are used with water solution and acidic hydrochloric acid to show pupils the pH scale. Sodium hydroxide has a wide variety of applications, including but not limited to producing paper and pulp, textiles, potable water, cleaning products, and even drain cleaners.
Usage of Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium Hydroxide is used to manufacture many everyday products, such as paper, aluminum, commercial drain, oven cleaners, soap, and detergents. Soaps and detergents: Sodium hydroxide makes soaps and detergents for homes and businesses: sodium hydroxide and chlorine cause bleach. Sodium hydroxide drain cleaners dissolve fats and grease in water to make soap. Pharmaceuticals and Medicine: Aspirin, anticoagulants and cholesterol-lowering medications are all made using sodium hydroxide. Fuel cell production uses sodium hydroxide. Fuel cells produce clean, efficient electricity for transportation, materials handling, stationary, portable, and emergency backup power. Wind turbines use sodium hydroxide-made epoxy resins. Water Treatment: Municipal water treatment plants use sodium hydroxide to control acidity and remove heavy metals. Sodium hydroxide makes water disinfectant sodium hypochlorite. Food Processing: Sodium hydroxide cures olives and browns Bavarian-style pretzels, giving them their crunch. Sodium hydroxide is used to peel tomatoes, potatoes, and other vegetables for canning and in food preservatives to prevent mold and bacteria growth.
Wood & Paper Products: In many papermaking processes, wood is treated with sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. This removes most of the wood’s impurities, leaving pure cellulose for paper. In paper recycling, sodium hydroxide removes ink from paper fibers so they can be reused. Alumina is extracted from natural minerals using sodium hydroxide. Alumina makes foil, cans, beer kegs, cooking utensils, and aviation parts. Aluminum allows for building facades and window frames. Many industrial and manufacturing operations employ sodium hydroxide. It makes rayon, spandex, explosives, epoxy resins, paints, glass, and ceramics. It makes dyes for textiles.
Technical data sheet & Chemical Formula
Sodium Hydroxide is also known as lye, a solid consisting of sodium cation and hydrogen atoms. The formula is NaOH.
|Physical state: Solid
Appearance: Crystalline solid. Crystalline powder. Little spheres. Lumps. Needles. Scales. Flakes.
Odor threshold: No data available
pH: 14 (5 %)
Melting point: 323 °C
Freezing point: No data available
Boiling point: 1388 °C (1013.25 hPa)
Flash point: Not applicable
Relative evaporation rate (butylacetate=1): No data available
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available
Vapour pressure : < 0.1
Relative density: 2.13 (20 °C)
Density: 2130 kg/m³
Packing of Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium Hydroxide is usually packed in 25 to 500 kg bags or barrels for bulk volumes.
Safety & warning & transportation of Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium Hydroxide solutions, like other corrosive acids and alkalis, can quickly degrade proteins and lipids in living tissues via amide hydrolysis and ester hydrolysis, leading to chemical burns and potentially permanent blindness if they come into contact with the eyes. Rubber gloves, safety goggles, and other protective gear should always be worn when working with this chemical or any of its solutions. Like other corrosives, alkali spills on the skin require extensive irrigation with water as the first line of defense. The recommended washing time is 10-15 minutes. In addition, the heat produced by dissolving sodium hydroxide is quite exothermic. It can lead to burns or even start a fire. Caution should be taken when storing sodium hydroxide.
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